1. PRESENT TENSE
Present Tense is used to talk about something in general. And it is also used to talk about something which is happened repeatedly or habituallly activities.
e.g.  +  The earth goes round the sun
        –   The earth doesn’t go round the sun
  ? Does the earth go round the sun ?
+  I get up at 8 o’clock every morning
–   I don’t get up at 8 o’clock every morning
?  Do you get up at 8 o’clock very morning?
The pattern :
S +  Verb 1 (s/es)…………………………………… Everyday/today
S + don’t/doesn’t + Verb 1…………………… ……Everyday/today
Do/Does + S + Verb 1………………………………Everyday/today?
QW + Do/does  + S + Verb 1…………………….…Everyday/today?
We use the present simple when we say how often we do things:
e.g. How often do you go to the dentist ?
       Mary doesn’t often drink tea.
2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
1.1 THE USE OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE
We use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking.
Example :  Please don’t make so much noise. I’m studying.
We also use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking.
Example : Silvia is learning English at the moment.
We often use the Present Continuous when we talk about a period around the present.
Example :You’re working hard today. Yes, I have a lot of to do
We use the present continuous when we talk about the changing situation.
Example : The population without jobs is increasing very fast.
1.2. THE ADVERBS OF TIME  USED
        The adverbs of time used in Present  Continous tense are “NOW, RIGHT NOW,  TOMORROW,ETC
1.3. THE PATTERN OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE
        The  patterns of Present continous tense consist of :
          1.3.A.  Positive Pattern
S + am/is/are + Verb 4…………………………………………….Now
              S  +  sedang +  4……………………………………..sekarang
          Examples :
1.      I  am studying English now.
2.      We are going to Jakarta tomorrow  (akan)
3.      You are singing now.
4.      He is making a cake now.
5.      she is sewing a shirt now.
6.      They are  playing football in the field now.
7.      Tom and Ani are doing their homework tomorrow.
8.      The students are doing sport now.
           1.3.b The Negative Pattern
S + am/is/are + Not + Verb 4……………………………………   Now
               S  + tidak sedang + 4 …………………………………….sekarang
               Example :
1.      I am not studying now
2.      He is not sleeping now
3.      My father is not watching television now.
4.      we aren’t going to Jakarta Tomorrow.
           1.3.c. The Interrogative Pattern
Am/Is/Are  + S + Verb 4…………………………………………..Now?
               Apakah + S  + sedang + 4…………………………sekarang ?
               Examples :
1.      Are you studying English now ?  Yes, I am/ No, I am not
2.      Is he eating fried rice now? Yes, he is/ No, he isn’t
3.      Is your father working in the office now? Yes, He is/No, He isn’t
           1.3.d.  Qusetion-word Pattern
QW + Am/Is/Are  + S + Verb 4……………………………………Now?
              QW  + yang + S +  4……………………………………..sekarang?
                Examples :
1.      What are you doing now ? studying
2.      Where is he studying English now ? at school
3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
We often use the present perfect Tense to give new information or to announce recent happening:
e.g. Do you know about Mary ? She’s gone to Jakarta.
We can use the Present Perfect Tense with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected :
e.g. Don’t forget to post this letter, will you? I’ve already posted it.
We  can use the Present Perfect Tense with just (= a short time ago)
e.g. Would you like something to eat? ‘No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch’.
We talk about a period of time that continuous up to the present, we use the present perfect.
e.g. Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Nora?
       Nora: Yes, I have been to 47 different countries.
We often use ever and never with the present perfect:
e.g. have you ever eaten caviar?
       We have never had a car.
We have to use present perfect Tense with This is the first time…, It the first time…
e.g. This is the first time  he has driven a car. (not drives)
We often use the present perfect with yet. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences: e.g. Has it stopped raining yet ? (not ‘did it stop’).
The pattern:
S + have/has + verb 3……………………….etc
S + haven’t/hasn’t +  Verb 3…………….….etc
Have/has + S + verb 3………………….. ….etc?
QW + have/has + S + verb 3………………..etc?
4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Present perfect continuous is used to explain the activity which has been happening until now.
S + have/has + been + verb 4…………etc
S + haven’t/hasn’t + been + verb 4……etc
Have/has + S + been + verb 4……….etc ?
QW + have/has + S + been + verb 4…etc ?
Example :
–          Pelajar pelajar tengah menyanyi sejak pagi ini
      +    The students have been singing since this morning
–          The students haven’t been singing since this morning
?    Have the students been singing since this morning ?

5. PAST TENSE

2.1. The Use of Simple Past Tense
We use the past simple to talk about actions or situations in the past.
2.2.   The Adverbs of time  used
         The adverbs of time used in this tense are Yesterday, last….., a week ago, this morning , last night, yesterday morning, yesterweek, yestermonth, yesteryear, etc.
2.3.    The Patterns of Simple Past  Tense
          2.3.1. The Positive Pattern
S + Verb 2…………………………………………………… Yesterday
              S  +   2…………………………………………………..
               Examples :
1.      John saw a crocodile in the river yesterday.
2.      We studied English  here last week.
3.      They played football in the field yesteryear
              2.3.2. The Negative Pattern
S + didn’t + Verb 1…………………………………… ……..Yesterday
              S   +   tidak +  1…………………………………kemarin
              Examples :
1.      John didn’t see a crocodile in the river yesterday.
2.      We didn’t study here last week.
3.      They didn’t play football in the field yesteryear.
               2.3.3. The Interrogative Pattern
Did  + S + Verb 1……………………………………………..Yesterday?
               Apakah + S + 1…………………………………………kemarin?
              Examples:
1.      Did John see a crocodile in the river yesterday ? Yes, he did/No, he didn’t
2.      Did you study here last week ? Yes, we did/ No, we didn’t
3.      Did they play football in the field yesteryear? Yes, they did/No, they didn’t
             2.3.4. The Question-word Pattern
QW + did  + S + Verb 1……………………………….………Yesterday?
            Qw + yang + S +  1…………………………………….?
             Examples:
1.      What  did John see in the river yesterday ? a crocodile
2.      When did John see a crocodile in the river? yesterday
QW +  Verb 2……………………………….………Yesterday? S + did
            QW  + 2……………………………..?
             Examples :
1.      Who saw a crocodile in the river yesterday ? John did
2.      What grew in the rice-field last year? A coconut tree did
6. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
We use past continuous Tense to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but hadn’t finished:

This time last year I was living in Brazil

We often use the past continuous Tense and the past simple together to say that something happened in the middle of something else:
When I was working in the garden, I hurt my back.
The pattern :
S +  was/were + verb 4………………….When + s + Verb 2…….……
S + was/were + not + Verb 4…………….When + s + Verb 2…………
Was/were + S + verb 4…………………. When + s + Verb 2 ……. ….?
QW + was/were + S + verb 4……………When + s + Verb 2 …………?
e.g. +    She was cooking rice when Tom came yesterday
       –    She wasn’t cooking rice when Tom came yesterday
       ?    Was she cooking rice when Tom came yesterday ?
7. PAST PERFECT TENSE
We use the Past perfect to say that something had already happened before this time :
Example :
–          When I arrived at the party, Tom had already gone home
–          When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my flat and had stolen my fur coat.
–          George didn’t want to come to the cinema with us because he had already seen the film twice.
–          It was my first time in an aeroplane. I was very nervous because I hadn’t flown before.
The pattern:
S + had + verb 3…………when/before S + V2
S + hadn’t +  Verb 3……… when/before S + V2
Had + S + verb 3………… when/before S + V2 ?
QW + had + S + verb 3………  when/before S + V2 ?
8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Past perfect tense is used for denoting the action which was in progress and has just finished
S + had been + verb 4…………when S + V2
S + hadn’t been +  Verb 4……… when S + V2
Had + S + been  + verb 4………… when S + V2 ?
QW + had + S + been + verb 4………  when S + V2 ?
 Example :
Mereka tengah mengerjakan PR ketika saya datang kemarin
     +   They had been doing the homework when I came yesterday
–          They hadn’t been doing the homework when I came yesterday
?    Had they been doing the homework when I came yesterday ?
9.     PRESENT FUTURE TENSE
Which is used especially for intended actions, and for the weather, and generally is more common in colloquial speech.
We often use will in this situation:
Offering to do something:
e.g. That bag looks heavy. I’ll help with it.
Agreeing and refusing to do something:
e.g. I’ve asked john to help me but he won’t
Promising to do something.
e.g. I will come to your house tonight. I promise.
Asking someone to do something.
Will you close the window,please!
A. The positive pattern of Present Future tense is as follows:
S + will/shall + Verb 1…………………………………… Tomorrow
             S   +  akan +  1 …………………….
            Example:
             1.  John will  run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month.
             2.  Mrs.Maria Eva will play badminton  tomorrow
B. The negative pattern of Present Future tense is as follows:
S + won’t/shan’t + Verb 1…………………… …………  Tomorrow
              S   +  tidak akan + 1    ………………………………..
            Example:
             1.  John won’t  run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month.
             2.  Mrs.Maria Eva won’t play badminton  tomorrow
C. The Interrogative pattern of Present Future tense is as follows
Will/Shall + S + Verb 1………………………………….. Tomorrow?
            Apakah + S + akan + 1…………………………..?
        1.  will John   run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month? Yes, He will/No,he won’t.
        2.  will Mrs.Maria Eva  play badminton  tomorrow? Yes, She will/No, she won’t
D. The QW pattern of Present Future tense is as follows
QW + will/shall  + S + Verb 1…………………….………Tomorrow?
             QW +  yang +  S  +  akan  + 1……………………….?
        1.  when will John   run a restaurant in Jakarta?  Next month
        2.  who will    run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month? John will
        3.  where will John   run a restaurant  Next month? Next month
        4.  what will John  do in Jakarta Next month? Running a restaurant
We often use will to be going to when we say what we have already decided to do, what we intend to do in the future.
e.g. A:There’s a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?
       B: No, I am too tired. I am going to have an early night.
The pattern :
S + am/is/are + going to + Verb 1……………………………………
S +am/is/are + not + going to + Verb 1…………………… …………
Am/is/are + S + going to + Verb 1………………………………….. .?
QW + am/is/are + S + going to + verb 1…………………………… ..?
10.PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
Present future continuous tense is used especially to indicate that an event will be in progress at a particular point in the future.
S + will be + Verb 4 + O + at…………..o’clock
S + won’t be + Verb 4 + O + at………..o’clock
Will + S + be + Verb 4 + O + at……….o’clock ?
QW + will + S + be +Verb 4…………o’clock ?
Example :
–          Kamu sedang akan pergi ke sekolah pukul 7 besok pagi
+    You will be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning
–     You won’t be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning
?    Will you be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning ?
11. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Present future perfect tense is used for something which will be completed by a certain time (perfect in the literal sense) or which leads up to a point in the future which is being focused on.
S + will have + verb 3 + ……….by the end……
S + won’t have + Verb 3 + ………..by the end….
Will + S + have + Verb 3 +  ………by the end…. ?
QW + will + S + have +Verb 3 +…………by the end… ?
Example :
–      Kita sudah akan tiba  di Jakarta besok sore.
     +   We will have  arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon
–       We won’t have  arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon
?  Will we have  arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon ?
12. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
S + will have been + verb 4………since……….
S + won’t have been + verb 4…….since……….
Will + S + have been + verb 4……since……….?
QW + will + S + have been + verb 4….since…..?
Example :
–          Mereka tengah akan belajar sejak pagi besok
     +   They will have been studying since this morning
–   They  won’t have been studying  since this morning
?  Will they have been studying since this morning ?
13.PAST FUTURE TENSE
S + would + V1…IF + S + verb 2………….etc
S + wouldn’t + verb 1….+ object…………..etc
Would + S + verb  1 ….+ object ……….…..etc ?
Example :
1.   Saya akan datang ANDAIKATA kamu mengundang saya
I would come if you invited me
2.   Tom akan melakukan perjalanan JIKAdia punya uang
Tom would travel if he had more money
14.PAST FUTURE CINTINUOUS TENSE
S + would be + Verb 4……when S + verb 2……….etc
S + wouldn’t + be + verb 4….when S + verb 2………etc
Would + S + be + verb  4 ….. when S + verb 2……etc ?
Example :
–          Sedianya mereka sedang akan pulang KETIKA kami datang
+    They would be going home when we came
–          They wouldn’t be going home when we came
?    Would they be going home when we came ?
15. PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
S + would have + verb 3…..IF + S + had + verb 3…….
S + wouldn’t have  + verb 3 ……object………..etc
Would + S + have + verb 3 …….object………..etc ?
Example :
–          Ia sudah akan menjadi presiden ANDAIKATA partainya menang dalam pemilihan umum.
–          He would have become a presiden if his party had won in general election
16. PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
S + would have + been + verb 4…..IF + S + had + verb 3…….
S + wouldn’t have  been + verb 4…….object…………etc
Would + S + have been + verb 4.. …….object………..etc ?
Example :
–          Sedianya rapat tengah akan dimulai sejak pagi ANDAIKATA walikota sudah datang tepat pada waktunya
–          The meeting would have been starting since this morning if Mayor had come on time.